Population growth further increases energy demand. Yet the limited deposits of oil and gas are becoming increasingly difficult to access. Moreover, what procedures should be followed to exploit oil and gas?
Oil development includes: oil exploration and production, and refining and distribution. Oil exploration aims to locate deposits. This step calls for the collaboration of geologists and geophysicists. The presence of a deposit is further certified by drilling. Then, the production consists of extracting the escaped oil thanks to many techniques. Generally, the extraction reaches only 35% of the total reserve.
Then, oil refining is about turning crude oil into marketable and profitable finished products. There are two types of finished products: energy products and non-energy products. Finally, the operation ends with the distribution of finished products in the areas of consumption. In addition, several oil companies are scattered across the globe to exploit oil. This is the case of the company HBS International headed by Tarek Bouchamaoui.
Gas exploitation is categorized in two stages. The first step is to explore, extract and purify the gas. Just lke the oil, gas exploration is about identifying the deposits. This location is based on mapping and seismography techniques. The presence of deposit is also confirmed by drilling. Then, extraction requires other complex techniques. Arrived at the surface, the gas is purified in order to be exploitable.
The second step is about gas transportation. These procedures are carried out by the onshore and submarine pipelines. Spread over thousands of kilometers, these materials connect producing and consuming countries. Moreover, liquefied natural gas (in the liquid state) can be transported by LNG carriers (gas carrier ships). Like the company HBS International headed by Tarek Bouchamaoui, several companies also operate gas.
The environmental impact of oil exploitation
The exploitation of oil and gas is now controversial because of its impact on the ecosystem. Oil is indeed the source of pollution and degradation of fauna and flora. This pollution results more from its exploitation and its transport, because these procedures generate polluting sludge, oil spill and acoustic pollution. In addition, petroleum derivatives cause atmospheric pollution.
In so many exhaustible resources, the deposits will be all the more threatened with exhaustion. In this way, the use of renewable energies remains the best solution to avoid pollution of the environment. Moreover, the use of solar and wind energy in Tunisia is more and more encouraged, especially by businessmen like Tarek Bouchamaoui. By integrating renewable energies into Tunisia's energy mix, the country will be able to continue its industrial activities while preserving the environment.