Oil provides 97% of man's energy needs. However, its extraction requires complex processes. By the way, what are the procedures for extracting oil?
Primary recovery is made in a natural way. Oil indeed goes up naturally to the surface. This step can also extract from 5 to 15%, or even 20 to 30% of the escaped oil. Nevertheless, the recovery rate depends on the quality of the deposit and the quantity of gas as well as the pressure of the deposit. Obviously, at the end of these processes, extraction continues with enhanced recovery.
Primary recovery procedures rely on a natural mechanism. The water actually moves the oil towards the base of the well. Underground pressure also forces oil to spring to the surface. The gas is more prevalent at the top of the tank. In addition, the crude oil moves from the top to the lower parts where the wells are located. Some materials, in this case the valves are necessary to the extent that the pressure decreases.
Secondary recovery relies on external energies. These last ones indeed increase the pressure of the deposit. This extraction method begins with the injection of material to force the oil to migrate to the surface. These are gases, liquefied petroleum gas, water, air or carbon dioxide. After the supply of material in the deposit, the overall fluid density in the wellbore decreases considerably.
Moreover, these procedures require energy, so a gas turbine installation on the platforms. However, these infrastructures result in a temporary stop of the extraction procedures and thus a loss of profit. In addition, secondary recovery extracts 30% more oil. However, this rate depends on the characteristics of oil and bedrock. In total, primary and secondary recoveries manage to extract 35 to 45% of crude oil.
The evolution of oil extraction techniques involves a significant consumption of energy. However, new extraction methods recover more oil from the tank. Assisted recovery involves heating the oil to reduce its viscosity and facilitate its extraction.
The most common method is steam injection using a cogeneration plant. This plant uses a gas turbine to produce electricity and heat to produce steam. In addition, modern hydrocarbon extraction techniques are rapidly depleting oil reserves. However, the use of renewable energies can circumvent this possibility. In Tunisia, the government and entrepreneur Tarek Bouchamaoui care about entering the country into an energy transition focused on solar and wind energy. This prospect was started in Tunisia following the perceiving by Tarek Bouchamaoui of the considerable reduction in hydrocarbon reserves.